ZIKA VIRUS PATHOGENESIS: A GLOBAL BIOTERRORISM FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
Zika virus is a newly developing virus that has been confirmed to have potential of spreading across a wide area. Aedes mosquito is considered to be responsible for the evolution of the virus. Till today, more than 44 countries have reported the transmission of the disease. The virus can also spread from human origin even after clinical recovery because the virus has a long viraemia or due to clogging of the virus in the semen even after viraemia is cleared. Zika virus contributes to several neurological abnormalities mainly Barre syndrome which have symptoms like weakness of the arms and legs usually on both side of the body. Recent research has suggested that the virus causes Microcephaly, a condition where neonates’ brain and head is smaller than normal and may also occur some other brain defects. No approved vaccines or treatment procedure is available for Zika virus presently. Though FDA has approved Focus diagnostics, Inc’sZika virus RNA Qualitative Real-Time TR-PCR test for diagnostics of the virus. Zika virus is an arbovirus from the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virons are enveloped, icosahedral and contain a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encode 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteinsthat are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cell. According to estimation of The World Health Organization, smaller Caribbean economics almost loses 1 to 2% of their total GDP due to Zika virus monthly. The estimated total wastage on the Latin America and the Caribbean region is $3.5 billion USD which is approximately 0.06% of the GDP. The actual concept of the virus is still unclear with some human cases reported in Asia and Africa. Very concentrated public health surveillances is necessary to control and prevent the disease. Preparation for prevention and control includes capacities and capabilities for early detection, response and communication.
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